The Wicked Ruler


Introduction Proverbs 11:10


Augusto Pinochet - died this Sunday 12-10-2006

In a time of death people have a tendency to recall all the good one did in their life. He was a good father, wife, son or daughter. We celebrate the time these individuals had with us and their accomplishments both small and great. President Reagan funeral the streets were lined up for miles with mourners giving their respect to The Great Communicator. Dignitary form all over the world gave their respects to include the Russian ruler he battle with thru out his career. Pinochet was a wicked ruler and we will look into what happens when wicked people die.



1.      Self Interest  (Pro 12:15)

·        Man's way or path seems correct to him, this is true with politics, leadership and any authority

·        It is ruled by self interest, what benefits my criteria not the masses

·        (Pro 18:3-5) It is not a good thing to follow the path of self interest rather than what's right

    a. The War effort in Iraq, the liberals and our media distort the truth in order to have power, expound.

·        People are always looking for what will help them attain power or position of respect

    a. This is true in everything on earth politics, family, friends and the church

·        Leaders will do this, we seem to think that just because they are leader they will do the right thing

    a. Look at our government today, William Jefferson, Harry Reed. John Murtha all corrupt but in power

    b. Their party supports them in spite of their lawless behavior, why? Self interest not service

    c. We seem to think our government and leaders have the best intentions, this is what they run on

    d. Pelosi ran on this in the mid term elections, bring back ethics to government, where was she during Clinton administration?

    e. It does not matter to people as long as they get what makes them rich, possession, fame, power or statue

·        We are now faced with a nation that attacks God and allows Satan to replace the laws of God, expound

·       God command the Man of God, you and I to speak against the sins of the nations

·       (Pro 21:10)  Man desires self and other will not benefit this is the reverse of what God wants

·        (Phil 2:6-8)  God came down as a servant, no self interest but death of self to save others

·        This is contrary to leadership of today, now leaders what people to serve them

    a. The world leadership is all about what they can control and wealth they can attain

    b. They lie, steal and cheat to get their life ambition, they are self righteous and soon to anger at confrontation

    c. people that would sell the young to have power and do so thru lies


2.      Man of Sin  (I Cor 10:24)

·        Leadership under God has always been to guide people towards God

·        It is the dieing to self and the welfare of others, this is true leadership

·        Man on the other hand is policies and agendas, we have now special interest groups that corrupt our government

·        What is the leadership doing now, is it concern with the welfare of our souls or allowing sin

    a. Gay rights, fornicators, pornography, gambling, sex, drugs you name it

    b. Our leaders now protect lawlessness under the cover of rights

    c. Gods laws have been forsaken and we feel that there will be no judgment

  • (Gen 6:12-13)  God sees our lifestyle and will take action in due time 
  • This world sooner or later will be judge by God because we have forsaken him
  • I hear Christians saying what people do in private is their own business, not true
  • Hidden sin will affect others,  (Josh 7:1-25)
  • Achan sin cause defeat to the people of God, Achan sinned but God judge Israel 
  • Sin affects everybody not a personal thing it is a curse (I Cor 5:1-6)
  • Our leadership is fault, sooner or later we will have to pay the reaper
  • Appeasement will destroy the world, compromise is a killer
  • The leadership of today in order not to offended have lowered the standard 
  • The standard will continue to be lower until (Isaiah 5:20-21)
  • We are headed to a point where righteousness will be evil and darkness will be good
  • The don't judge me mentality, church we are falling for it


3.      Their Linage

·        Leaders are concern about what history will record about them

  • So rather than doing right the begin a campaign of propaganda

  • Our media is guilty of this it is liberal and protects people that line up with their belief

  • This is an instrument of the Devil he rules thru lies (John 8:31-59)

  • Building linage will cause you to make a decision for God, what will yours be

  • The Jews came to Jesus under Abraham yet Jesus reveals their true desire, lies

  • They sought the kingdom of man not Gods, religion rather that obedience

  • We need to be careful where we are building (I Cor 3:9-21)

  • Everything that we do will go thru the fire ask Saddam, Hitler, Castro

  • God has called leaders to do the will of God this has been lost, we have other criteria's

  • Leaders now seek self and popularity, throwing away the laws of God

  • Sin is no longer an issue now we rule by if it feels good then it's Ok, ungodliness

  • This is true of all leadership of today, where is the church?

  • Separation of church and state, let's kick God out of our government, not the forefather intention

  • We are now building a society of convenience and popularity

  • It's what the people want not God will be done, a great disservice to us all

  • The is the reason God was angry when Israel asked for a king, (I Sam 8:7-8)

  • We are going to lose this world because of man's sin

  • They call it education and tolerance, it's sin for a season (Heb 11:24-25)

  • Where have the Moses gone? It's time for the church to make the difference



Prov 11:10
10 When it goeth well with the righteous, the city rejoiceth: and when the wicked perish, there is shouting.

Prov 12:15
15 The way of a fool is right in his own eyes: but he that hearkeneth unto counsel is wise.

Prov 18:3-5
3 When the wicked cometh, then cometh also contempt, and with ignominy reproach.
4 The words of a man's mouth are as deep waters, and the wellspring of wisdom as a flowing brook.
5 It is not good to accept the person of the wicked, to overthrow the righteous in judgment.

Prov 21:10
10 The soul of the wicked desireth evil: his neighbour findeth no favour in his eyes.

Phil 2:6-8
6 Who, being in the form of God, thought it not robbery to be equal with God:
7 But made himself of no reputation, and took upon him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness of men:
8 And being found in fashion as a man, he humbled himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross.

1 Cor 10:24
24 Let no man seek his own, but every man another's wealth.

Gen 6:12-13
12 And God looked upon the earth, and, behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the earth.
13 And God said unto Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold, I will destroy them with the earth.

Josh 7:1-25
7:1 But the children of Israel committed a trespass in the accursed thing: for Achan, the son of Carmi, the son of Zabdi, the son of Zerah, of the tribe of Judah, took of the accursed thing: and the anger of the LORD was kindled against the children of Israel.
2 And Joshua sent men from Jericho to Ai, which is beside Beth-aven, on the east side of Bethel, and spake unto them, saying, Go up and view the country. And the men went up and viewed Ai.
3 And they returned to Joshua, and said unto him, Let not all the people go up; but let about two or three thousand men go up and smite Ai; and make not all the people to labour thither; for they are but few.
4 So there went up thither of the people about three thousand men: and they fled before the men of Ai.
5 And the men of Ai smote of them about thirty and six men: for they chased them from before the gate even unto Shebarim, and smote them in the going down: wherefore the hearts of the people melted, and became as water.
6 And Joshua rent his clothes, and fell to the earth upon his face before the ark of the LORD until the eventide, he and the elders of Israel, and put dust upon their heads.
7 And Joshua said, Alas, O Lord GOD, wherefore hast thou at all brought this people over Jordan, to deliver us into the hand of the Amorites, to destroy us? would to God we had been content, and dwelt on the other side Jordan!
8 O Lord, what shall I say, when Israel turneth their backs before their enemies!
9 For the Canaanites and all the inhabitants of the land shall hear of it, and shall environ us round, and cut off our name from the earth: and what wilt thou do unto thy great name?
10 And the LORD said unto Joshua, Get thee up; wherefore liest thou thus upon thy face?
11 Israel hath sinned, and they have also transgressed my covenant which I commanded them: for they have even taken of the accursed thing, and have also stolen, and dissembled also, and they have put it even among their own stuff.
12 Therefore the children of Israel could not stand before their enemies, but turned their backs before their enemies, because they were accursed: neither will I be with you any more, except ye destroy the accursed from among you.
13 Up, sanctify the people, and say, Sanctify yourselves against to morrow: for thus saith the LORD God of Israel, There is an accursed thing in the midst of thee, O Israel: thou canst not stand before thine enemies, until ye take away the accursed thing from among you.
14 In the morning therefore ye shall be brought according to your tribes: and it shall be, that the tribe which the LORD taketh shall come according to the families thereof; and the family which the LORD shall take shall come by households; and the household which the LORD shall take shall come man by man.
15 And it shall be, that he that is taken with the accursed thing shall be burnt with fire, he and all that he hath: because he hath transgressed the covenant of the LORD, and because he hath wrought folly in Israel.
16 So Joshua rose up early in the morning, and brought Israel by their tribes; and the tribe of Judah was taken:
17 And he brought the family of Judah; and he took the family of the Zarhites: and he brought the family of the Zarhites man by man; and Zabdi was taken:
18 And he brought his household man by man; and Achan, the son of Carmi, the son of Zabdi, the son of Zerah, of the tribe of Judah, was taken.
19 And Joshua said unto Achan, My son, give, I pray thee, glory to the LORD God of Israel, and make confession unto him; and tell me now what thou hast done; hide it not from me.
20 And Achan answered Joshua, and said, Indeed I have sinned against the LORD God of Israel, and thus and thus have I done:
21 When I saw among the spoils a goodly Babylonish garment, and two hundred shekels of silver, and a wedge of gold of fifty shekels weight, then I coveted them, and took them; and, behold, they are hid in the earth in the midst of my tent, and the silver under it.
22 So Joshua sent messengers, and they ran unto the tent; and, behold, it was hid in his tent, and the silver under it.
23 And they took them out of the midst of the tent, and brought them unto Joshua, and unto all the children of Israel, and laid them out before the LORD.
24 And Joshua, and all Israel with him, took Achan the son of Zerah, and the silver, and the garment, and the wedge of gold, and his sons, and his daughters, and his oxen, and his asses, and his sheep, and his tent, and all that he had: and they brought them unto the valley of Achor.
25 And Joshua said, Why hast thou troubled us? the LORD shall trouble thee this day. And all Israel stoned him with stones, and burned them with fire, after they had stoned them with stones.

1 Cor 5:1-6
5:1 It is reported commonly that there is fornication among you, and such fornication as is not so much as named among the Gentiles, that one should have his father's wife.
2 And ye are puffed up, and have not rather mourned, that he that hath done this deed might be taken away from among you.
3 For I verily, as absent in body, but present in spirit, have judged already, as though I were present, concerning him that hath so done this deed,
4 In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, when ye are gathered together, and my spirit, with the power of our Lord Jesus Christ,
5 To deliver such an one unto Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus.
6 Your glorying is not good. Know ye not that a little leaven leaveneth the whole lump?

Isa 5:20-21
20 Woe unto them that call evil good, and good evil; that put darkness for light, and light for darkness; that put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter!
21 Woe unto them that are wise in their own eyes, and prudent in their own sight!


John 8:31-59
31 Then said Jesus to those Jews which believed on him, If ye continue in my word, then are ye my disciples indeed;
32 And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.
33 They answered him, We be Abraham's seed, and were never in bondage to any man: how sayest thou, Ye shall be made free?
34 Jesus answered them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Whosoever committeth sin is the servant of sin.
35 And the servant abideth not in the house for ever: but the Son abideth ever.
36 If the Son therefore shall make you free, ye shall be free indeed.
37 I know that ye are Abraham's seed; but ye seek to kill me, because my word hath no place in you.
38 I speak that which I have seen with my Father: and ye do that which ye have seen with your father.
39 They answered and said unto him, Abraham is our father. Jesus saith unto them, If ye were Abraham's children, ye would do the works of Abraham.
40 But now ye seek to kill me, a man that hath told you the truth, which I have heard of God: this did not Abraham.
41 Ye do the deeds of your father. Then said they to him, We be not born of fornication; we have one Father, even God.
42 Jesus said unto them, If God were your Father, ye would love me: for I proceeded forth and came from God; neither came I of myself, but he sent me.
43 Why do ye not understand my speech? even because ye cannot hear my word.
44 Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.
45 And because I tell you the truth, ye believe me not.
46 Which of you convinceth me of sin? And if I say the truth, why do ye not believe me?
47 He that is of God heareth God's words: ye therefore hear them not, because ye are not of God.
48 Then answered the Jews, and said unto him, Say we not well that thou art a Samaritan, and hast a devil?
49 Jesus answered, I have not a devil; but I honour my Father, and ye do dishonour me.
50 And I seek not mine own glory: there is one that seeketh and judgeth.
51 Verily, verily, I say unto you, If a man keep my saying, he shall never see death.
52 Then said the Jews unto him, Now we know that thou hast a devil. Abraham is dead, and the prophets; and thou sayest, If a man keep my saying, he shall never taste of death.
53 Art thou greater than our father Abraham, which is dead? and the prophets are dead: whom makest thou thyself?
54 Jesus answered, If I honour myself, my honour is nothing: it is my Father that honoureth me; of whom ye say, that he is your God:
55 Yet ye have not known him; but I know him: and if I should say, I know him not, I shall be a liar like unto you: but I know him, and keep his saying.
56 Your father Abraham rejoiced to see my day: and he saw it, and was glad.
57 Then said the Jews unto him, Thou art not yet fifty years old, and hast thou seen Abraham?
58 Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am.
59 Then took they up stones to cast at him: but Jesus hid himself, and went out of the temple, going through the midst of them, and so passed by.

1 Cor 3:9-21
9 For we are labourers together with God: ye are God's husbandry, ye are God's building.
10 According to the grace of God which is given unto me, as a wise masterbuilder, I have laid the foundation, and another buildeth thereon. But let every man take heed how he buildeth thereupon.
11 For other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ.
12 Now if any man build upon this foundation gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, stubble;
13 Every man's work shall be made manifest: for the day shall declare it, because it shall be revealed by fire; and the fire shall try every man's work of what sort it is.
14 If any man's work abide which he hath built thereupon, he shall receive a reward.
15 If any man's work shall be burned, he shall suffer loss: but he himself shall be saved; yet so as by fire.
16 Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?
17 If any man defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy; for the temple of God is holy, which temple ye are.
18 Let no man deceive himself. If any man among you seemeth to be wise in this world, let him become a fool, that he may be wise.
19 For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written, He taketh the wise in their own craftiness.
20 And again, The Lord knoweth the thoughts of the wise, that they are vain.
21 Therefore let no man glory in men. For all things are yours;

1 Sam 8:7-8
7 And the LORD said unto Samuel, Hearken unto the voice of the people in all that they say unto thee: for they have not rejected thee, but they have rejected me, that I should not reign over them.
8 According to all the works which they have done since the day that I brought them up out of Egypt even unto this day, wherewith they have forsaken me, and served other gods, so do they also unto thee.

Heb 11:24-25
24 By faith Moses, when he was come to years, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter;
25 Choosing rather to suffer affliction with the people of God, than to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season;

SANTIAGO, Chile - The death of former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet Sunday brought tears to his dwindling number of supporters, while some of his opponents clashed with police after throwing rocks at cars and setting up fire barricades in the streets.

Police struggled to keep the two groups apart and used water cannons and tear gas to scatter activists outside the presidential palace.

The clashes broke out as hundreds of mostly young demonstrators marched to the presidential palace, and later spread to several working-class districts. Police said 23 officers, including a major and a captain, were injured. Authorities said there were a number of arrests.

Deputy Interior Minister Felipe Harboe blamed the violence on “minority elements who infiltrated the demonstration.” He appealed for people across the country to remain calm.

Many Chileans saw Pinochet’s death as reason for celebration. Hundreds of cheering, flag-waving people crowded a major plaza in the capital, drinking champagne and tossing confetti.

Jorge Alvarez told state television he was there “for my relatives, my friends who were jailed and exiled. I know it seems odd celebrating somebody’s death, but...”

A man who passed next to him sipping champagne from a bottle chanted “He’s gone, he’s gone, that’s good.”

‘Death seals Pinochet’s impunity’
Across the globe, human rights activists expressed frustration that the general managed to avoid trial for the thousands of deaths that occurred during his 17-year regime.

“Death seals Pinochet’s impunity,” said Venezuelan Vice President Jose Vicente Rangel, who had been a friend of Salvador Allende, the democratically elected Chilean president who died in the 1973 coup that brought Pinochet to power.“Pinochet has died, and I don’t think he’s going to heaven,” British human rights lawyer Geoffrey Robertson told BBC television. “His death does rob us of a proper trial and retribution for his victims.”

Chile’s government says at least 3,197 people were killed for political reasons during his rule and thousands more disappeared, but after leaving the presidency in 1990 Pinochet escaped hundreds of criminal complaints because of his declining physical and mental health.

Chileans who believe Pinochet saved them from communism wept and hoisted posters with the general’s image. Some chanted that Pinochet and his feared secret police were Chile’s saviors.

“He will live forever in my memory — I love him as much as my own children,” said Margarita Sánchez outside the hospital where Pinochet died.

Another woman, Rosa Godoy, told state television Pinochet was “our liberator.”

“He saved us from communism,” she said. “This a very sad day for us.”

Pinochet, 91, had very few supporters left outside Chile, judging from the reaction from countries once allied with his dictatorship. But the office of former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, who had been a close ally of Pinochet, said she was “greatly saddened” by his death.

President Bush’s administration reached out to Pinochet’s opponents Sunday, saying his regime “represented one of the most difficult periods in that nation’s history.”

“Our thoughts today are with the victims of his reign and their families,” said White House spokesman Tony Fratto.

While some former U.S. presidents quietly supported Pinochet, the current administration has good ties with Chile’s free-market Socialist President Michelle Bachelet, whose father — a Pinochet opponent — died after being tortured in prison.

Like the White House, British Foreign Secretary Margaret Beckett focused on Chile’s advances since Pinochet left power in 1990, paying tribute to “an open, stable and prosperous democracy.”

Others focused on the long wait for justice by Pinochet’s victims.

Human Rights Watch said Pinochet pioneered the use of “disappearances” as a tool of repression and watched his reputation erode as prosecutors pursued complaints of human rights abuses.

“Pinochet spent his last years fending off an ever-tightening web of prosecutions in Chile and died a profoundly discredited figure in the land he once ruled,” said Jose Miguel Vivanco, Americas director at Human Rights Watch.

Emilio Alvarez Icaza, head of Mexico City’s Human Rights Committee, called Pinochet “one of the clearest expressions of brutality in the flesh.”

The former dictator’s death “left me with a bittersweet taste because they didn’t manage to prosecute him in his life for all the crimes he committed,” Alvarez Icaza said.

Susana Perez Gallard, co-president of the Permanent Human Rights Assembly in neighboring Argentina, said, “We have had a long wait for this man to be convicted for his crimes against humanity, but lamentably he passed away without it happening.”

The London-based human rights group Amnesty International said Pinochet’s death “should be a wake-up call for the authorities in Chile and governments everywhere, reminding them of the importance of speedy justice for human rights crimes, something Pinochet himself has now escaped.”

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Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte
Augusto Pinochet

President of Government Junta
In office
September 11, 1973 – March 11, 1981
Preceded by None
Succeeded by José Toribio Merino

30th President of Chile
In office
December 16, 1974 – March 11, 1990
Preceded by Salvador Allende
Succeeded by Patricio Aylwin

Born November 25, 1915
Died December 10, 2006
Political party none (military)
Spouse Lucía Hiriart Rodríguez

Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915December 10, 2006) was a general and President of Chile. He led the military junta to power in 1973 through a coup d'état, deposing the democratically elected President Salvador Allende. He was president of the Republic from 1974 to 1990 (1981 to 1990 under the Constitution of 1980).



Early career

Pinochet was born in Valparaíso on November 25, 1915, the son of Augusto Pinochet Vera (descendant of Breton immigrants who arrived in Chile during the 18th century) and Avelina Ugarte Martínez. He went to primary and secondary school at the San Rafael Seminary of Valparaíso, the Rafael Ariztía Institute (Marist Brothers) in Quillota, the French Fathers' School of Valparaíso, and in the Military School, which he entered in 1933. After four years of study, in 1937 he graduated with the rank of alférez (Second Lieutenant) in the infantry.

In September 1937, he was assigned to the "Chacabuco" Regiment, in Concepción. Two years later, in 1939, then with the rank of sub-lieutenant, he moved to the "Maipo" Regiment, garrisoned in Valparaíso. He returned to Infantry School in 1940. On January 30, 1943, he married Lucía Hiriart Rodríguez, with whom he had five children: three daughters (Inés Lucía, María Verónica, Jacqueline Marie) and two sons (Augusto Osvaldo and Marco Antonio).

At the end of 1945, he was assigned to the "Carampangue" Regiment in the northern city of Iquique. In 1948, he entered the War Academy, but he had to postpone his studies, because, being the youngest officer, he had to carry out a service mission in the coal zone of Lota. The following year, he returned to his studies in the Academy.

After obtaining the title of Officer Chief of Staff, in 1951, he returned to teach at the Military School. At the same time, he worked as a teachers' aide at the War Academy, giving military geography and geopolitics classes. In addition to this, he was active as editor of the institutional magazine Cien Águilas ("One Hundred Eagles").

At the beginning of 1953, with the rank of major, he was sent for two years to the "Rancagua" Regiment in Arica. While there, he was appointed professor of the War Academy, and he returned to Santiago to take up his new position. He also obtained a baccalaureate, and with this degree, he entered the University of Chile's Law School.

Pinochet (left) and Allende in 1973

Pinochet (left) and Allende in 1973

In 1956, Pinochet was chosen, together with a group of other young officers, to form a military mission that would collaborate in the organization of the War Academy of Ecuador in Quito, which forced him to suspend his law studies. He remained with the Quito mission for three-and-a-half years, during which time he dedicated himself to the study of geopolitics, military geography and intelligence. During his time there, he was known in diplomatic circles as an exceptional poker player.

At the end of 1959, he returned to Chile and was sent to General Headquarters of the I Army Division, based in Antofagasta. The following year, he was appointed Commander of the "Esmeralda" Regiment. Due to his success in this position, he was appointed Sub-director of the War Academy in 1963.

In 1968, he was named Chief of Staff of the II Army Division, based in Santiago, and at the end of that year, he was promoted to Brigadier General and Commander in Chief of the VI Division, garrisoned in Iquique. In his new function, he was also appointed Intendant of the Tarapacá Province.

In January 1971, he rose to Division General, and was named General Commander of the Santiago Army Garrison. At the beginning of 1972, he was appointed General Chief of Staff of the Army. With rising domestic strife in Chile, Pinochet was appointed Army Commander in Chief on August 23, 1973 by President Salvador Allende, his masonic brother of the same lodge, just the day after Parliament voted a resolution calling Allende's removal, by force if necessary.


Military coup of 1973

Main article: Chilean coup of 1973
Pinochet (sitting) as head of the newly established military junta

Pinochet (sitting) as head of the newly established military junta

Pinochet came to power in a coup d'état on September 11, 1973 after the Chamber of Deputies in its Resolution of August 22, 1973 declared that Allende had violated the Constitution. President Allende died before being captured. The exact circumstances of his death are still disputed. An autopsy in 1990 found that Allende's wounds were consistent with the suicide account.

In his memoirs, Pinochet affirms that he was the leader of the coup, and used his position as Commander-in-chief of the Army to coordinate a far-reaching scheme with the other two branches of the military and the national police. In recent years, however, high military officials from the time have said that Pinochet reluctantly got involved only a few days before it was scheduled to occur and followed the lead of other branches (especially the Navy) as they triggered the coup.


Military junta

A military junta was established immediately following the coup, made up of General Pinochet representing the Army, Admiral José Toribio Merino representing the Navy, General Gustavo Leigh representing the Air Force, and General César Mendoza representing the Carabineros (uniformed police).



Main article: Chile under Pinochet

Once the Junta was in power, Pinochet soon consolidated his control, first retaining sole chairmanship of the military junta, and then being proclaimed President on June 27, 1974. General Leigh, head of the Air Force, became increasingly opposed to Pinochet's policies and was forced into retirement on July 24, 1978. He was replaced by General Fernando Matthei.

During 1977 and 1978, Chile was on the brink of war with Argentina (also ruled by a military government) over a disagreement regarding the ownership of the strategic Picton, Lennox and Nueva islands at the southern tip of South America. Antonio Samoré, a representative of Pope John Paul II, prevented full-scale war. The conflict was finally resolved in 1984, with the Treaty of Peace and Friendship (Tratado de Paz y Amistad). Chilean sovereignty over the islands and Argentinian over the surrounding sea is now undisputed.

In 1981, he promoted himself to the supreme army rank of Capitán General (literally Captain General), previously borne by colonial governors and by Bernardo O'Higgins, a hero of Chile's war of independence. The rank was reserved only for those who were, at the same time, heads of Government and of the Army.


Economic policy

By mid 1975, Pinochet set about making economic reforms variously called "neoliberal" or sometimes "free market" by its supporters. He declared that he wanted "to make Chile not a nation of proletarians, but a nation of proprietors." To formulate his economic policy, Pinochet relied on the so-called Chicago Boys, who were economists trained at the University of Chicago and heavily influenced by the ideas of Milton Friedman.

The government launched an era of deregulation of business and privatization. To accomplish his objectives, the Chicago Boys privatized the pension system, state industries, and banks, and lowered taxes on income. Supporters of these policies (most notably Milton Friedman himself) have dubbed them "The Miracle of Chile", due to the country's sustained economic growth since the late 1980s. [1]


Suppression of opposition

Pinochet as President

Pinochet as President

After the military's seizure of power, Pinochet destroyed the insurgency linked to the defeated Popular Unity (PU) government. In October 1973, at least 70 people were killed by the Caravan of Death. Almost immediately, the junta banned all the leftist parties that had constituted Allende's UP coalition. Much of the regime's violence was directed toward those it viewed as communist and socialist militants, all in favour of armed conflict. It is not known exactly how many people were killed by government and military forces during the 17 years that he was in power, but the Rettig Commission listed 2,095 deaths, with the vast majority of victims coming from the opposition to Pinochet at the hands of the state security apparatus. Thousands of Chileans were expelled from and fled the country to escape the regime.

Pinochet's rule was frequently made unstable by protests and isolated violent attacks. Isolated attacks by armed groups opposed to the regime allowed the dictatorship to justify what they termed the "cycle" of oppression.

In contrast to most other nations in Latin America, prior to the coup Chile had a long tradition of democratic civilian rule; military intervention in politics had been rare. Some political scientists have ascribed the relative bloodiness of the coup to the stability of the existing democratic system, which required extreme action to overturn.

The situation in Chile came to international attention in September 1976, when Orlando Letelier, a former Chilean ambassador to the United States and minister in Allende's cabinet, was assassinated in Washington, D.C. by a bomb in his car. General Carlos Prats, Pinochet's predecessor and army commander under Allende, who had resigned rather than support the moves against the democratic system, was assassinated under similar circumstances in Buenos Aires, Argentina, two years earlier.


Chilean foreign relations under Pinochet

The new junta quickly broke off the diplomatic relations with Cuba that had been established under the Allende government. Having come to power with the self-proclaimed mission of fighting communism, Pinochet found common cause with the military dictatorships of Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and later, Argentina. The six countries eventually formulated a plan that became known as Operation Condor, in which one country's security forces would target suspected "Marxist subversives", guerrillas, and their sympathizers in the allied countries.

Under Pinochet, Chile was the only country in Latin America not to support Argentina in its war with the U.K. over the Falkland Islands in 1982, after having almost started a war over a confrontation on the Picton, Lennox and Nueva islands.

Pinochet's government received tacit approval and material support from the United States. The exact nature and extent of this support is disputed. (See U.S. role in 1973 Coup, U.S. intervention in Chile and Operation Condor for more details.)


End of the Pinochet regime

President Pinochet

President Pinochet

In 1980, a new constitution was approved, which prescribed a single-candidate presidential referendum in 1988, and a return to civilian rule in 1990. In May 1983, the opposition and labor movements began to organize demonstrations and strikes against the regime, provoking violent responses from government officials. In 1986, security forces discovered 80 tons of weapons smuggled into the country by the Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic Front (FPMR), the armed branch of the outlawed Communist Party. The shipment of Carrizal Bajo included C-4 plastic explosives, RPG-7 and M72 LAW rocket launchers as well as more than three thousand M-16 rifles. The operation was overseen by Cuban intelligence, and also involved East Germany and the Soviet Union.

In September, weapons from the same source were used in an unsuccessful assassination attempt against Pinochet by the FPMR. Pinochet suffered only minor injuries, but five of his military bodyguards were killed. The beheading of leftist professor José Manuel Parada, and journalist Manuel Guerrero, and Santiago Nattino by the uniformed police (carabineros) led to the resignation of junta member General César Mendoza in 1985.


Lost referendum and return to civilian rule

According to the transitional provisions of the 1980 Constitution, approved by 75% of voters in what has been said to be "a highly irregular and undemocratic plebiscite.",[2] a plebiscite was scheduled for October 5, 1988, to vote on a new eight-year presidential term for Pinochet. The Constitutional Tribunal ruled that the plebiscite should be carried out as stipulated by the Law of Elections. That included an "Electoral Space" during which all positions, in this case two, (yes), and No, would have two free slots of equal and uninterrupted TV time, simultaneously broadcast by all TV channels, with no political advertising outside those spots. The allotment was scheduled in two off-prime time slots: one before the afternoon news and the other before the late-night news, from 22:45 to 23:15 each night (the evening news was from 20:30 to 21:30, and prime time from 21:30 to 22:30). The opposition No campaign produced colorful, upbeat programs, telling the Chilean people to vote against the extension of the presidential term. Ricardo Lagos, an opposition leader, called, in an interview, on Pinochet to account for all the "disappeared" persons. The campaign did not argue for the advantages of extension, but was instead negative, claiming that voting "no" was equivalent to voting for a return to the chaos of the UP government.

Pinochet lost the 1988 referendum, where 55% of the votes rejected the extension of the presidential term, against 42% for "", and, though a plebiscite is technically non-binding, this one triggered multi-candidate presidential elections in 1989 to choose his replacement. Open presidential elections were held the next year, at the same time as congressional elections that would have taken place in either case. Pinochet left the presidency on March 11, 1990 and transferred power to Patricio Aylwin, the new democratically elected president.

Due to the transitional provisions of the constitution, Pinochet remained as Commander-in-Chief of the Army, until March 1998. He was then sworn in as a senator-for-life, a privilege first granted to former presidents with at least six years in office by the 1980 constitution. His senatorship and consequent immunity from prosecution protected him, and legal challenges began only after Pinochet had been arrested in the United Kingdom.


Arrest and trial

Pinochet's regime has been accused of systematic and widespread human rights violations, both at home and abroad, and he was also personally accused of using his position to enrich himself and his family. On October 17, 1998, while traveling to the United Kingdom for medical treatment, Pinochet was arrested on a Spanish provisional warrant for the murder in Chile of Spanish citizens while he was president.[3] Five days later, Pinochet was served with a second provisional arrest warrant from judge Baltasar Garzón of Spain charging him with systematic torture, murder, illegal detention, and "disappearances".

Pinochet was placed under house arrest in Britain while appealing the legal authority of the Spanish and British courts to try him, but eventually released on medical grounds by the then Home Secretary Jack Straw without facing trial.

He returned to Chile and resigned his senatorial seat in 2002, after a Supreme Court ruling that he suffered from "vascular dementia" and therefore could not stand trial for human rights abuses—allegations of abuses had been made numerous times before his arrest, but never acted upon. In May 2004, Chile's supreme court ruled that he was capable of standing trial, and he was charged with several crimes in December of that year.

In 2004, a United States Senate money-laundering investigation led by Sen. Carl Levin (D-MI) and Norm Coleman (R-MN) uncovered a network of over 125 securities and bank accounts at Riggs Bank and other US financial institutions used by Pinochet and his associates for twenty-five years to secretly move millions of dollars.[4] Though the subcommittee was charged only with investigating compliance of financial institutions under the PATRIOT Act, and not the Pinochet regime, Sen. Coleman noted: “This is a sad, sordid tale of money laundering involving Pinochet accounts at multiple financial institutions using alias names, offshore accounts, and close associates. As a former General and President of Chile, Pinochet was a well-known human rights violator and violent dictator.”

Supporters of Pinochet credit him with staving off the beginning of Communism, fighting terrorism from radical groups such as MIR, and implementing free market policies that laid the groundwork for rapid economic growth that continued into the 1990s. His opponents charge him with destroying Chile's democracy, including by repressing radical groups such as MIR pushing for change, pursuing a policy of state terrorism, catering exclusively for private interests, and adopting economic policies that favored the wealthy and hurt the country's middle- and low-income sectors. While it was originally denied by his supporters, it is now generally accepted that Pinochet's government was responsible for torturing and killing thousands of people perceived to be opponents.



Chileans remain divided on his legacy. Many see him as a dictator who ended democracy and led a regime characterized by torture and favouritism towards the rich, while many others believe that he defeated communism and brought economic growth to Chile. Investigations started in 2004 showed that Pinochet had transferred 26 Million Dollars to foreign bank accounts [2]. This severely tarnished Pinochet's image amongst his followers.

The debate over Pinochet's legacy was revisited after the retired General's arrest in London in 1998. At that time, the General said of the 1973 coup, “We only set ourselves the task of transforming Chile into a democratic society of free men and women." [3] His supporters made similar claims. Former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, for example, thanked the General for "bringing democracy to Chile". [4] When in power, however, Pinochet gave a series of speeches that rather clearly indicated that the 1973 coup targeted not only Allende's Popular Unity government, but Chilean democracy itself, which the General saw as hopelessly flawed. In wording that Pinochet repeated several times in various speeches, he claimed that Chile had been “slave and victim of the Congress since 1925, and slave and victim of the political parties.” Arguing for an "organic" type of democracy, Pinochet contended that “Merely formal democracy dissolves itself, victim of a demagogy that substitutes simple, unattainable promises for social justice and economic prosperity.”Democracy would inevitably result in a Marxist dictatorship, according to his analysis. Chilean democracy, therefore, was “progressively socializing in its economic experiments.... Those who thought they could detain or control this evolution... were given proof under the Marxist regime of their impotence and incomprehensible lack of vision.” (Pinochet, “Patria y Democracia”, 1983, Santiago, Andres Bello)

There have been several detailed reports which describe the human rights abuses carried out by the Pinochet regime. In January 2005, the Chilean Army accepted institutional responsibility for past abuses. Other institutions also accept that abuses took place, but blame them on individuals, rather than official policy. Lucía Pinochet Hiriart, Augusto Pinochet's eldest daughter, said the use of torture during his 1973–90 regime was "barbaric and without justification", after seeing the Valech Report.

Pinochet left behind a series of abandoned concentration camps. Most of them have been either destroyed or dismantled, others remain partially intact or have been turned into museums or sites of remembrance. Some of these include Villa Grimaldi, Chacabuco, National Stadium and Pisagua.


Final days and death

On Pinochet's 91st birthday, November 25, 2006, in a public statement to supporters, Pinochet said, in a statement read by his wife Lucia Hiriart, "Today, near the end of my days, I want to say that I harbour no rancour against anybody, that I love my fatherland above all. ... I take political responsibility for everything that was done." (BBC)

Pinochet suffered a heart attack on the morning of December 3, 2006, and subsequently the same day he was given the last rites. This occurred days after he was put under house arrest. On December 4, 2006, the Chilean Court of Appeals ordered the release of this house arrest. On December 10, 2006 at 13:30 local time (16:30 UTC) he was taken to the ICU[5]. He died of heart complications and pulmonary edema [6], surrounded by family members, at the Military Hospital at 14:15 local time (17:15 UTC).[7][8][9] There were massive spontaneous street demonstrations from opponents in downtown Santiago, as well as from supporters outside the Military Hospital, in Providencia. His son Marco Antonio stated that Pinochet requested his body to be cremated in order to avoid profanation and vandalism of his tomb.[10]

The government stated that Pinochet would not receive a state funeral, as is normally granted to former presidents, and no official day of national mourning would be declared. However, the government did authorize flags at military barracks to fly at half mast. President Michelle Bachelet, herself imprisoned and mistreated under the Pinochet regime, said it would be "a violation of [her] conscience" to attend a state funeral for Pinochet.[11]


See also


Updated: 9:53 p.m. MT Dec 29, 2006

DEARBORN, Mich. - Dozens of Iraqi-Americans gathered late Friday at a Detroit-area mosque to celebrate reports that Saddam Hussein had been executed, cheering and crying as drivers honked horns in jubilation.

Dave Alwatan wore an Iraqi flag around his shoulders and flashed a peace sign to everyone he passed at the Karbalaa Islamic Educational Center in this suburb of Detroit, a city that has one of the nation's largest concentrations of people with roots in the Middle East.

"Peace," he said, grinning and laughing. "Now there will be peace for my family."

Saddam Hussein executed before dawn

Deposed Iraqi dictator is hanged for deaths of 148 Shiites in 1982

Saddam hanged
Dec. 29: Former Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein was hanged for the killing, torture and other crimes against the Shiite population of the town of Dujail. MSNBC-TV's Milissa Rehberger and NBC's Richard Engel report.

NBC News

Slide show
Images of downfall
The path to descent of Iraq’s Saddam Hussein.
NBC Video: The Execution of Saddam
Saddam Hussein executed
Dec. 29: Former Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein was hanged for the killing, torture and other crimes against the Shiite population of the town of Dujail. MSNBC-TV's Milissa Rehberger and NBC's Richard Engel report.

A year of tumult
Take a look back at the defining moments from Iraq in 2006.

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Updated: 1 hour, 10 minutes ago

BAGHDAD, Iraq - Clutching a Quran and refusing a hood, Saddam Hussein went to the gallows before sunrise Saturday, executed by vengeful countrymen after a quarter-century of remorseless brutality that killed countless thousands and led Iraq into disastrous wars against the United States and Iran.

The death penalty was carried out following the guilty verdict in Saddam’s trial for the killing of 148 Shiite men and boys from the town of Dujail after militants tried to assassinate him there in 1982, during Iraq’s war with Shiite Iran.

Witnesses to the execution told Richard Engel of NBC News that they were cheering around the body of Saddam after the hanging — three years after the deposed president was hauled from a hole in the ground by pursuing U.S. forces.


Alwatan, 32, said Saddam's forces tortured and killed relatives that were left behind when Alwatan left Iraq in 1991.

A crowd of more than 150 men gathered in anticipation of the former Iraqi dictator's execution, singing and dancing and chanting "Now there's peace, Saddam is dead" in English and Arabic.

The center's director, Imam Husham Al-Husainy, said members prayed for Saddam's death. Outside, traffic slowed as people drove in circles around the mosque, honking horns.

‘The gift of our New Year’
"This is our celebration of the death of Saddam," Al-Husainy said while standing on top of a car following reports by Iraqi state-run television that Saddam had been hanged. "The gift of our New Year is the murder of Saddam Hussein."

Meanwhile, some local Arab-American leaders warned that Saddam's execution would increase violence in Iraq.

Osama Siblani, publisher of The Arab American News and chairman of several Arab-American groups, said the former dictator's death sentence was one more casualty in a war that has killed thousands. He said it will not end the power struggle among Iraqi religious groups.

"The execution might bring some amusement and accomplishment to the Bush administration, but it will not help the Iraqi people," Siblani said. "The problem we're facing in Iraq is going to multiply."

‘It's not going to bring back my family members’
Rauf Naqishbendi, 53, an Iraqi Kurd who moved to the U.S. in 1977, said he was pleased that Hussein was being executed, but lamented the loss of family members who he said were gassed by the dictator's henchman in 1988.

"Psychologically, the execution is good news, and people will feel that justice has been served," said Naqishbendi, who lives a few miles south of San Francisco. "But the reality is that it's not going to bring back my family members who he killed."

The Detroit area's Iraqi community includes a group of Chaldean Christians, many of whom fled their homeland during Saddam's rule.

Joseph Kassab, executive director of the Chaldean Federation of America, based in the Detroit suburb of Farmington Hills, said his humanitarian organization is against the taking of human life. But, he said, the world must reflect on Saddam's execution, "so we never again relinquish our destiny to tyrants like him."

Imad Hamad, director of the American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee in Dearborn, said the glee surrounding Saddam's death was laced with uncertainty about the future.

"The joy would have been complete if we were to see the healthy Iraq, the united Iraq, the safe Iraq," Hamad said. "Then everybody would be jumping up and down, celebrating."

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